The 4th Monkey – Do No Evil
Integrity is highly regarded in our daily affairs, yet we don’t emphasize it as often as we should. We grew up thinking about our conscience and how it governs our actions. I sense the need to focus on universal values and principles to teach and apply. I am reissuing, with a few modifications, my most popular blog post, The 4th Monkey. I am giving it a subtitle of “May the 4th be with you. The universal application of these age-old concepts is a tremendous value that should guide our behavior and interactions.
We grew up with the story of the three monkeys. I imagine we share the same interpretation of what they represent. We were exposed to pictures or statues. One monkey had his hands over his eyes, the second monkey with hands over his ears and the third monkey’s hands were over his mouth. They were See No evil (Mizaru), Hear No Evil (Kikazura), and Speak No Evil (Iwazura). There were actions and behaviors demanded of us based on the three monkeys, but nothing was said about the fourth monkey. The fourth monkey is Do No Evil (Shizaru).
The stories of the four monkeys were popular in Japan in the 17th century. Their origin is between 2 and 4 BC in China. The Storyologer website (www.storyologer.com) has this account of Mahatma Gandhi who carried around a small statue of the three monkeys. “Gandhi had a statue of three monkeys in three different postures. One was shutting his mouth with his hands; the other was shutting his ears similarly and the third one had put his hands over his eyes. A visitor to his house became curious and questioned Gandhi about the various postures of the monkeys. Gandhi politely replied, “The one shutting his mouth tells us that we should not speak ill of anybody. The one shutting his ears tells us that we should not hear the ill of anybody. And the one shutting his eyes tells us that we should not see the ills of anybody. If we do so, we will have all goodness and nothing but goodness.”
Travelers will often find local markets with carved depictions or artwork featuring the three monkeys. My wife was able to purchase an angelic model of the same concept. There are three angels; one was covering her eyes; one was covering her ears and the other was covering her mouth. However, the fourth monkey was not shown. The 4th monkey, when pictured, is usually shown folding his arms (the body language of being closed) or covering his crotch to signify inactivity.
The different interpretations of the four monkeys are fascinating. In the Buddhist tradition, it meant don’t spend your time preoccupied with evil thoughts. In the West, it relates to not facing up to our moral responsibility, for example turning a blind eye. But in my household, the monkeys were presented to us as a model of proper behavior. Our parents wanted us to identify with the images, to supplement our moral code.
See no evil (Mizaru)
We were told to pay attention to people and location(s). The idea was that if we were in the right location, we would minimize seeing trouble develop before our eyes. This was applicable in school and at work. We were instructed against being at the wrong place at the wrong time or the wrong place right. We were also told not to look for bad things in people or in certain situations. There are people who see bad things when they don’t exist, which could explain the manifestations of bias, stereotypes, and profiling. We were not taught to be naïve but to be careful and respectful.
Hear no evil (Kikazaru)
We were told to shield ourselves from bad language and bad intentions. We should stay away from people who spoke ill of others and gossiped. If we were not in the wrong place we could minimize hearing things that we should not hear. We were also instructed not to listen to foul or vulgar language. If we heard people’s language, especially regarding someone’s evil intentions, we could use the evil information to do good or to help others, that would be permissible.
Speak no evil (Iwazura)
Speak no evil was used to discourage gossiping or speaking ill will about someone. We were told to watch our language and to speak kind words. “If you can’t say anything good about someone, don’t say anything” was a part of this same philosophy. Adults told us that spreading bad news or malicious information could come back to haunt us. We should also, apply this same advice to the workplace.
There is a misconception about the concept. This misconception has led people to adopt a code of silence in the workplace and in politics when a person is not pulling their own weight or has committed offenses. We would rather silently complain or resign, before talking about an employee who was not working. We would not want to be labeled a snitch or a stool pigeon. In the streets, people would say, “snitches get stitches.” To speak evil of someone means telling a lie, bearing false witness, or defaming their reputation. However, it is our responsibility to find a way to report injustice, illegal behavior, and practices that undermine people and the organization. Our intention should be to speak the truth in love without malice or premeditated negative objectives.
One way to break the code of silence is by offering incentives to whistleblowers. These individuals are people who step forward and report unlawful activities in an organization. They are paid a 10% bounty if the measure goes to court and fines are levied against the lawbreakers. In neighborhoods where people know the perpetrators of violence, but fail to come forward, there are no such incentives. Residents may be afraid of retribution, as the rationale for their silence. We must also realize that justice requires telling the truth and this should not be regarded as speaking evil of someone.
Do no evil (Shizaru)
The fourth monkey’s actions are truly related to the others. The workplace and politics are common places for the four monkeys to be used as an operating system. Employee bullying and intimidation, sexual-harassment claims, the presence of racial discrimination, unconscious bias, and sexually charged language and actions exists in many organizations. Where improprieties and liberties are taken with people’s rights in the form of disrespectful words and actions, there are laws in place to prevent and punish these actions. Employees, who adopt a see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil mindset are not helping to develop a positive company culture or a respectful workplace
Do no evil is a perfect monkey to enforce the values of character and integrity. He reminds us of proper behavior and etiquette. Our choices have consequences and the more we can emphasize a positive corporate culture and a respectful workplace the more effective our organizations will become. There are conduct and behavior norms that must be identified, emphasized, and enforced vigorously. Character will minimize stress in the workplace and reduce the number of lawsuits and discipline related to improper behavior.
The Do No Evil mindset would influence our participation in the political process. Our dialogue in conversations around those who are different from us or have different opinions would be positively affected. If we operated each day thinking in terms of Do No Evil, we would be more empathetic in understanding of each other. We would put ourselves in the shoes of our neighbors and seek to understand their point of, listen to their words, and lay the foundation for greater chemistry instead of conflict.
How can we create an environment in our workplaces, families, and communities, where people are held accountable for their own unlawful actions and the private citizens who come forward can feel safe and protected? If The 4th Monkey was modeled, we would have less of a cause to talk about Mizaru (see no evil) and Kikazuru (hear no evil).
Do no evil and speak no evil should be magnified and connected to many of our guiding principles of behavior. The Golden Rule and its equivalent in many cultures advise us to treat people the way we want to be treated. The Platinum Rule asks us to treat people the way they want to be treated. The 10 Commandments implore us not to do a series of acts that could be seen as evil, such as murder, stealing, etc. you are instructed to love your neighbor as yourself. If we began from a position of love, it is easier to think in terms of speak and do no evil.
We must clearly outline expectations of behavior and the judgment related to them to improve the climate in our organizations, homes, and places where people meet. The correct action is essential to achieving healthy results in our relationships.
The imagery and practices espoused by The 4th Monkey hold the key to making this possible. I am hopeful that by emphasizing the fourth monkey, we can improve our behaviors, connections, interactions, and relationships with everyone.
Copyright © 2016 Orlando Ceaser